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❤️ The story of alexander


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the story of alexander

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Alexander the Great Biography Free Slots with Stacked Wilds. Uxian Defile Battle of the Uxian Defile. A History of Greece to BC. When Alexander was 13, Philip began to search for a tutorand considered such academics as Isocrates and Speusippusthe latter offering to resign from his stewardship elfmeter trick the Academy to fcb champions league trikot up the post. Loretta Young, makes a wonderful Mabel Hubbard, Mr. By he had created a laboratory dedicated to scientific research and discovery. Passed Crime Drama Film-Noir. A considerable Wild Rocket Slot Machine - Now Available for Free Online of power was granted him after the death of Philipskrills of Machatas; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself BCas well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at TriparadisusBC. With the Athenians lost, the Thebans were surrounded. This is a film that is instructive as well as fun to watch because of the subject matter and the casino schriftart that made the story come alive. One of the options for the gamblers to win is to match symbols on board using regular spins.

He eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia.

In the years following his death , a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi , Alexander's surviving generals and heirs.

Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name , most notably Alexandria in Egypt.

Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization , aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the midth century AD and the presence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern Anatolia until the s.

Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles , and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures.

He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. Several legends surround Alexander's birth and childhood.

Sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wife's womb with a seal engraved with a lion's image.

Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage, variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious.

On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and that his horses had won at the Olympic Games.

It was also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus , one of the Seven Wonders of the World , burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, attending the birth of Alexander.

In his early years, Alexander was raised by a nurse, Lanike , sister of Alexander's future general Cleitus the Black. Later in his childhood, Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas , a relative of his mother, and by Lysimachus of Acarnania.

When Alexander was ten years old, a trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents.

The horse refused to be mounted, and Philip ordered it away. Alexander however, detecting the horse's fear of its own shadow, asked to tame the horse, which he eventually managed.

Macedon is too small for you", and bought the horse for him. Bucephalas carried Alexander as far as India. When the animal died because of old age, according to Plutarch, at age thirty , Alexander named a city after him, Bucephala.

When Alexander was 13, Philip began to search for a tutor , and considered such academics as Isocrates and Speusippus , the latter offering to resign from his stewardship of the Academy to take up the post.

In return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira , which Philip had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile.

Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy , Hephaistion , and Cassander. Many of these students would become his friends and future generals, and are often known as the 'Companions'.

Aristotle taught Alexander and his companions about medicine, philosophy, morals, religion, logic, and art. Under Aristotle's tutelage, Alexander developed a passion for the works of Homer , and in particular the Iliad ; Aristotle gave him an annotated copy, which Alexander later carried on his campaigns.

At age 16, Alexander's education under Aristotle ended. Philip waged war against Byzantion , leaving Alexander in charge as regent and heir apparent.

Alexander responded quickly, driving them from their territory. He colonized it with Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandropolis. Upon Philip's return, he dispatched Alexander with a small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace.

Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus , Alexander is reported to have saved his father's life. Meanwhile, the city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to Apollo near Delphi , a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek affairs.

Still occupied in Thrace, he ordered Alexander to muster an army for a campaign in southern Greece. Concerned that other Greek states might intervene, Alexander made it look as though he was preparing to attack Illyria instead.

During this turmoil, the Illyrians invaded Macedonia, only to be repelled by Alexander. Philip and his army joined his son in BC, and they marched south through Thermopylae , taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison.

They went on to occupy the city of Elatea , only a few days' march from both Athens and Thebes. The Athenians, led by Demosthenes , voted to seek alliance with Thebes against Macedonia.

Both Athens and Philip sent embassies to win Thebes' favour, but Athens won the contest. Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes, who both rejected it.

As Philip marched south, his opponents blocked him near Chaeronea , Boeotia. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea , Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals.

According to the ancient sources, the two sides fought bitterly for some time. Philip deliberately commanded his troops to retreat, counting on the untested Athenian hoplites to follow, thus breaking their line.

Alexander was the first to break the Theban lines, followed by Philip's generals. Having damaged the enemy's cohesion, Philip ordered his troops to press forward and quickly routed them.

With the Athenians lost, the Thebans were surrounded. Left to fight alone, they were defeated. After the victory at Chaeronea, Philip and Alexander marched unopposed into the Peloponnese, welcomed by all cities; however, when they reached Sparta , they were refused, but did not resort to war.

Philip was then named Hegemon often translated as "Supreme Commander" of this league known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth , and announced his plans to attack the Persian Empire.

When Philip returned to Pella, he fell in love with and married Cleopatra Eurydice , the niece of his general Attalus.

At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece.

This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, "You villain," said he, "what, am I then a bastard?

At which Alexander reproachfully insulted over him: Alexander fled Macedon with his mother, dropping her off with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona , capital of the Molossians.

However, it appears Philip never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son. In the following year, the Persian satrap governor of Caria , Pixodarus , offered his eldest daughter to Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus.

When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a better bride for him.

Alexander was proclaimed king on the spot by the nobles and army at the age of Alexander began his reign by eliminating potential rivals to the throne.

He had his cousin, the former Amyntas IV , executed. Olympias had Cleopatra Eurydice and Europa, her daughter by Philip, burned alive.

When Alexander learned about this, he was furious. Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus, [39] who was in command of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor and Cleopatra's uncle.

Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. Attalus also had severely insulted Alexander, and following Cleopatra's murder, Alexander may have considered him too dangerous to leave alive.

News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes north of Macedon. When news of the revolts reached Alexander, he responded quickly.

Though advised to use diplomacy, Alexander mustered 3, Macedonian cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly. When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force.

He then continued south towards the Peloponnese. Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth.

Athens sued for peace and Alexander pardoned the rebels. The famous encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic occurred during Alexander's stay in Corinth.

When Alexander asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little to the side, as he was blocking the sunlight.

He also received news of a Thracian uprising. Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard his northern borders. Starting from Amphipolis , he travelled east into the country of the "Independent Thracians"; and at Mount Haemus , the Macedonian army attacked and defeated the Thracian forces manning the heights.

Alexander then marched for three days to the Danube , encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore. Crossing the river at night, he surprised them and forced their army to retreat after the first cavalry skirmish.

News then reached Alexander that Cleitus , King of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open revolt against his authority.

Marching west into Illyria, Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers to flee with their troops. With these victories, he secured his northern frontier.

While Alexander campaigned north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again. Alexander immediately headed south. The Theban resistance was ineffective, and Alexander razed the city and divided its territory between the other Boeotian cities.

The end of Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece temporarily at peace. This also showed Alexander's eagerness to fight, in contrast to his father's preference for diplomacy.

After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus , Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis ; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast, granting autonomy and democracy to the cities.

Miletus, held by Achaemenid forces, required a delicate siege operation, with Persian naval forces nearby.

Further south, at Halicarnassus , in Caria , Alexander successfully waged his first large-scale siege , eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria, Orontobates , to withdraw by sea.

From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases.

From Pamphylia onwards the coast held no major ports and Alexander moved inland. At Termessos , Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city.

After a long pause due to an illness, he marched on towards Syria. Though outmanoeuvered by Darius' significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus.

Darius fled the battle, causing his army to collapse, and left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis , and a fabulous treasure.

Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial divisions. When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated.

However, Alexander met with resistance at Gaza. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege.

When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible… this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the attempt".

As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children were sold into slavery.

Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two. Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana modern Hamedan , while Alexander captured Babylon.

From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa , one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury. Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city.

He then stormed the pass of the Persian Gates in the modern Zagros Mountains which had been blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury.

On entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to loot the city for several days. Possible causes include a drunken accident or deliberate revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Persian War by Xerxes.

Shall I pass by and leave you lying there because of the expeditions you led against Greece, or shall I set you up again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?

Alexander then chased Darius, first into Media, and then Parthia. Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him.

This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia. Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate "The Furthest" in modern Tajikistan.

Spitamenes , who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana, in BC betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy , one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus was executed.

Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the Battle of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign against Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai.

After the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace. During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis , either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their social superiors.

This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it. A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas , was executed for failing to alert Alexander.

The death of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion , who had been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana , was assassinated at Alexander's command, to prevent attempts at vengeance.

Most infamously, Alexander personally killed the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black , during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda modern day Samarkand in Uzbekistan , in which Cleitus accused Alexander of several judgmental mistakes and most especially, of having forgotten the Macedonian ways in favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle.

Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages.

His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus , was implicated in the plot, and in the Anabasis of Alexander , Arrian states that Callisthenes and the pages were then tortured on the rack as punishment, and likely died soon after.

When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater , an experienced military and political leader and part of Philip II's "Old Guard", in charge of Macedon.

In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia.

After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana Raoxshna in Old Iranian to cement relations with his new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent.

He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan , to come to him and submit to his authority.

Omphis Indian name Ambhi , the ruler of Taxila , whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes Jhelum , complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas , refused to submit.

Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1, talents in gold".

Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund Fox , supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality.

On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5, men and took part in the battle of the Hydaspes River.

After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus, to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy.

Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus.

A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip , son of Machatas; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself BC , as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus , BC.

Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought in the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos. The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody fighting, in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle.

According to Curtius , "Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubble.

In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. Alexander followed close behind and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days.

He appointed Porus as satrap, and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis Beas.

Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River Beas , refusing to march farther east.

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India.

For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants.

For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand war elephants.

Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther, but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return; the men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland".

Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus. Along the way his army conquered the Malhi in modern-day Multan and other Indian tribes and Alexander sustained an injury during the siege.

Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania modern southern Iran with general Craterus , and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus , while he led the rest back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran.

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed several of them as examples on his way to Susa.

His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. They refused to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units.

After three days, unable to persuade his men to back down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units.

The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander accepted, and held a great banquet for several thousand of his men at which he and they ate together.

Afterwards, Alexander travelled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure. There, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion , died of illness or poisoning.

Plutarch 's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus , and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa.

The common soldiers, anxious about his health, were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them.

Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination, [] foul play featured in multiple accounts of his death.

Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication, [] while both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness.

Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon as a death sentence, [] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and Philotas, [] Antipater purportedly arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexander's wine-pourer.

The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were probably not available.

Several natural causes diseases have been suggested, including malaria and typhoid fever. A article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis.

The anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestion 's death may also have contributed to his declining health. Alexander's body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket.

While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis.

Ptolemy IX Lathyros , one of Ptolemy's final successors, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert the original to coinage.

This would fit with the intended destination of Alexander's funeral cortege. Pompey , Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly, accidentally knocked the nose off.

Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use. His son and successor, Caracalla , a great admirer, visited the tomb during his own reign.

After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy. The so-called " Alexander Sarcophagus ", discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum , is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions fighting the Persians and hunting.

Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed. Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless by this point, implying that this was an apocryphal story.

Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus , Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians.

However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager , rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus.

Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only.

Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians, however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power.

Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. Alexander's will called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations.

Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered.

He overcame this by being personally involved in battle, [73] in the manner of a Macedonian king. In his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used only a small part of his forces, [ citation needed ] perhaps 13, infantry with 5, cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40, By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry.

This ensured that Alexander would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the Persians' scimitars and javelins.

Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming.

The advance was successful and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to flee once again. When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents' style.

Thus, in Bactria and Sogdiana , Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements, while massing his cavalry at the center.

Greek biographer Plutarch c. Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face.

The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum: British historian Peter Green provided a description of Alexander's appearance, based on his review of statues and some ancient documents:.

Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough. His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven.

His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His eyes one blue, one brown revealed a dewy, feminine quality.

He had a high complexion and a harsh voice. Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.

Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.

According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, [] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.

He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.

During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia.

By they had secured backing, patented the idea, and developed the device. The first call over wires came in by mistake, and Bell began to promote the telephone.

After fighting off court cases and challenges over the next 20 years, he created and cemented an institution in the USA. Despite his huge success, he was never really a businessman, and, by the s he had handed control of the business over to his wife.

By he had created a laboratory dedicated to scientific research and discovery. And, by he continued working with deaf people and teaching them speech.

There were numerous projects he worked on in the later years of his life, and. But the time he passed away at the age of 75, Bell had changed the world.

Alexander Graham Bell is a name we all recognize, and for good reason. His works have been influential, and, his work with the development of the telephone has had a lasting impact on the developed world.

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Scottish-born scientist and inventor Alexander Graham Bell is best known as the inventor of the telephone. He is credited with creating and patenting the first practical telephone.

Everything we do these days is done through the use of telephones and smartphones. So, next time you pick up your iPhone and send a WhatsApp message, remember that it started with this guy!

Alexander Graham Bell was born in , in Edinburgh, Scotland, and had two brothers who died at the age of Bell had some profound early experiences that affected his life and adjusted the direction of his focus.

Edinburgh was known as the Athens of the North and had a huge science, art, and culture scene. After spending most of his childhood being homeschooled, Bell spent two years in Edinburgh Royal High School and showed a great aptitude for problem-solving.

Though his parents pushed him toward a career in the family business, Bell had other ideas. After clashing with his father, and seeking a different path for himself, Bell volunteered to care for his ailing grandfather while he pursued his purpose in life.

It was at this time that his interest in intellectual pursuits and problem-solving were nurtured and blossomed. By the age of 16, he had joined his father working with the deaf but had a very clear idea of the direction his life would take.

In , following a brief move to the USA, Bell and his family moved to Ontario, Canada, where he continued to study voice and sound.

And it was a year later that he would make one of his biggest breakthroughs. In , Alexander moved back to America and started to work on a device that allowed telegraph transmissions.

He found financial backing from investors and spent time trying to perfect the novel device. It was during this time that, by happenstance, he fell in love with another idea — transmitting the human voice over wires.

Thomas Watson was hired to replace Bell on the telegram project, but the pair teamed up and began working on voice transmission.

By they had secured backing, patented the idea, and developed the device. The first call over wires came in by mistake, and Bell began to promote the telephone.

Philip waged war against Byzantion , leaving Alexander in charge as regent and heir apparent. Alexander responded quickly, driving them from their territory.

He colonized it with Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandropolis. Upon Philip's return, he dispatched Alexander with a small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace.

Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus , Alexander is reported to have saved his father's life. Meanwhile, the city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to Apollo near Delphi , a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek affairs.

Still occupied in Thrace, he ordered Alexander to muster an army for a campaign in southern Greece. Concerned that other Greek states might intervene, Alexander made it look as though he was preparing to attack Illyria instead.

During this turmoil, the Illyrians invaded Macedonia, only to be repelled by Alexander. Philip and his army joined his son in BC, and they marched south through Thermopylae , taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison.

They went on to occupy the city of Elatea , only a few days' march from both Athens and Thebes. The Athenians, led by Demosthenes , voted to seek alliance with Thebes against Macedonia.

Both Athens and Philip sent embassies to win Thebes' favour, but Athens won the contest. Philip then returned to Elatea, sending a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes, who both rejected it.

As Philip marched south, his opponents blocked him near Chaeronea , Boeotia. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea , Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals.

According to the ancient sources, the two sides fought bitterly for some time. Philip deliberately commanded his troops to retreat, counting on the untested Athenian hoplites to follow, thus breaking their line.

Alexander was the first to break the Theban lines, followed by Philip's generals. Having damaged the enemy's cohesion, Philip ordered his troops to press forward and quickly routed them.

With the Athenians lost, the Thebans were surrounded. Left to fight alone, they were defeated. After the victory at Chaeronea, Philip and Alexander marched unopposed into the Peloponnese, welcomed by all cities; however, when they reached Sparta , they were refused, but did not resort to war.

Philip was then named Hegemon often translated as "Supreme Commander" of this league known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth , and announced his plans to attack the Persian Empire.

When Philip returned to Pella, he fell in love with and married Cleopatra Eurydice , the niece of his general Attalus. At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece.

This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, "You villain," said he, "what, am I then a bastard?

At which Alexander reproachfully insulted over him: Alexander fled Macedon with his mother, dropping her off with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona , capital of the Molossians.

However, it appears Philip never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son. In the following year, the Persian satrap governor of Caria , Pixodarus , offered his eldest daughter to Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus.

When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a better bride for him.

Alexander was proclaimed king on the spot by the nobles and army at the age of Alexander began his reign by eliminating potential rivals to the throne.

He had his cousin, the former Amyntas IV , executed. Olympias had Cleopatra Eurydice and Europa, her daughter by Philip, burned alive.

When Alexander learned about this, he was furious. Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus, [39] who was in command of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor and Cleopatra's uncle.

Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens.

Attalus also had severely insulted Alexander, and following Cleopatra's murder, Alexander may have considered him too dangerous to leave alive.

News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes north of Macedon.

When news of the revolts reached Alexander, he responded quickly. Though advised to use diplomacy, Alexander mustered 3, Macedonian cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly.

When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force.

He then continued south towards the Peloponnese. Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth.

Athens sued for peace and Alexander pardoned the rebels. The famous encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic occurred during Alexander's stay in Corinth.

When Alexander asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little to the side, as he was blocking the sunlight.

He also received news of a Thracian uprising. Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard his northern borders.

Starting from Amphipolis , he travelled east into the country of the "Independent Thracians"; and at Mount Haemus , the Macedonian army attacked and defeated the Thracian forces manning the heights.

Alexander then marched for three days to the Danube , encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore.

Crossing the river at night, he surprised them and forced their army to retreat after the first cavalry skirmish. News then reached Alexander that Cleitus , King of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open revolt against his authority.

Marching west into Illyria, Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers to flee with their troops. With these victories, he secured his northern frontier.

While Alexander campaigned north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again. Alexander immediately headed south. The Theban resistance was ineffective, and Alexander razed the city and divided its territory between the other Boeotian cities.

The end of Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece temporarily at peace. This also showed Alexander's eagerness to fight, in contrast to his father's preference for diplomacy.

After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus , Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis ; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast, granting autonomy and democracy to the cities.

Miletus, held by Achaemenid forces, required a delicate siege operation, with Persian naval forces nearby.

Further south, at Halicarnassus , in Caria , Alexander successfully waged his first large-scale siege , eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria, Orontobates , to withdraw by sea.

From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases.

From Pamphylia onwards the coast held no major ports and Alexander moved inland. At Termessos , Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city.

After a long pause due to an illness, he marched on towards Syria. Though outmanoeuvered by Darius' significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus.

Darius fled the battle, causing his army to collapse, and left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis , and a fabulous treasure.

Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial divisions. When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated.

However, Alexander met with resistance at Gaza. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege.

When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible… this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the attempt".

As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children were sold into slavery. Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two.

Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana modern Hamedan , while Alexander captured Babylon. From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa , one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury.

Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city. He then stormed the pass of the Persian Gates in the modern Zagros Mountains which had been blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury.

On entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to loot the city for several days. Possible causes include a drunken accident or deliberate revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Persian War by Xerxes.

Shall I pass by and leave you lying there because of the expeditions you led against Greece, or shall I set you up again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?

Alexander then chased Darius, first into Media, and then Parthia. Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia.

Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate "The Furthest" in modern Tajikistan.

Spitamenes , who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana, in BC betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy , one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus was executed.

Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the Battle of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign against Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai.

After the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace. During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis , either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their social superiors.

This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it. A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas , was executed for failing to alert Alexander.

The death of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion , who had been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana , was assassinated at Alexander's command, to prevent attempts at vengeance.

Most infamously, Alexander personally killed the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black , during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda modern day Samarkand in Uzbekistan , in which Cleitus accused Alexander of several judgmental mistakes and most especially, of having forgotten the Macedonian ways in favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle.

Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages.

His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus , was implicated in the plot, and in the Anabasis of Alexander , Arrian states that Callisthenes and the pages were then tortured on the rack as punishment, and likely died soon after.

When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater , an experienced military and political leader and part of Philip II's "Old Guard", in charge of Macedon.

In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia. After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana Raoxshna in Old Iranian to cement relations with his new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent.

He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan , to come to him and submit to his authority.

Omphis Indian name Ambhi , the ruler of Taxila , whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes Jhelum , complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas , refused to submit.

Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1, talents in gold".

Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund Fox , supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality.

On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5, men and took part in the battle of the Hydaspes River.

After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus, to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy.

Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus.

A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip , son of Machatas; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself BC , as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus , BC.

Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought in the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos. The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody fighting, in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle.

According to Curtius , "Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubble.

In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. Alexander followed close behind and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days.

He appointed Porus as satrap, and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis Beas.

Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River Beas , refusing to march farther east.

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants.

For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand war elephants.

Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther, but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return; the men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland".

Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus. Along the way his army conquered the Malhi in modern-day Multan and other Indian tribes and Alexander sustained an injury during the siege.

Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania modern southern Iran with general Craterus , and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus , while he led the rest back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran.

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed several of them as examples on his way to Susa.

His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. They refused to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units.

After three days, unable to persuade his men to back down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units.

The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander accepted, and held a great banquet for several thousand of his men at which he and they ate together.

Afterwards, Alexander travelled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure. There, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion , died of illness or poisoning.

Plutarch 's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus , and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa.

The common soldiers, anxious about his health, were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them. Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination, [] foul play featured in multiple accounts of his death.

Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication, [] while both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness.

Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon as a death sentence, [] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and Philotas, [] Antipater purportedly arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexander's wine-pourer.

The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were probably not available.

Several natural causes diseases have been suggested, including malaria and typhoid fever. A article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis.

The anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestion 's death may also have contributed to his declining health. Alexander's body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket.

While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis.

Ptolemy IX Lathyros , one of Ptolemy's final successors, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert the original to coinage.

This would fit with the intended destination of Alexander's funeral cortege. Pompey , Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly, accidentally knocked the nose off.

Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use. His son and successor, Caracalla , a great admirer, visited the tomb during his own reign.

After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy. The so-called " Alexander Sarcophagus ", discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum , is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions fighting the Persians and hunting.

Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed.

Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless by this point, implying that this was an apocryphal story. Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus , Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians.

However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager , rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion.

Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only.

Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians, however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power.

Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. Alexander's will called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations.

Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered.

He overcame this by being personally involved in battle, [73] in the manner of a Macedonian king. In his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used only a small part of his forces, [ citation needed ] perhaps 13, infantry with 5, cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40, By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry.

This ensured that Alexander would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the Persians' scimitars and javelins.

Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming.

The advance was successful and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to flee once again. When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents' style.

Thus, in Bactria and Sogdiana , Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements, while massing his cavalry at the center.

Greek biographer Plutarch c. Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face.

The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum: British historian Peter Green provided a description of Alexander's appearance, based on his review of statues and some ancient documents:.

Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough. His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven.

His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His eyes one blue, one brown revealed a dewy, feminine quality.

He had a high complexion and a harsh voice. Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.

Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.

According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, [] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.

He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.

During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia. He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself.

Alexander married three times: He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon. Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion , the son of a Macedonian noble.

Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy. Aelian, however, writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus , the latter hinting that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles.

Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life.

Alexander accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly, [] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".

Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.

His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean.

Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.

Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos" , of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab , and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire.

Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name , most of them east of the Tigris. At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons.

Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest.

This culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies.

Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the successor states. The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian.

The resulting syncretism known as Greco-Buddhism heavily influenced the development of Buddhism [ citation needed ] and created a culture of Greco-Buddhist art.

Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style.

Greek astronomical treatise and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy.

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was far-ranging.

In the area of architecture , a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila.

Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna , especially with the Pataliputra capital , dated to the 3rd century BC.

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.

Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness.

On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly Republican figures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by republican values.

story of alexander the -

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